2009: President Barack Obama gets a rapturous reception in Ghana from Africans overjoyed at the visit of America's first black president to a country south of the Sahara.
1856: American adventurer William Walker declares himself president of Nicaragua, a position he holds for about a year before being forced out by neighbouring states.
1902: Australia's Parliament passes Immigration Restriction Act to stop non-European immigration, and gives women right to vote.
1957: Prince Karim, 20-year-old student at Harvard University, becomes Aga Khan and leader of 20 million Ismaili Muslims following the death of his grandfather.
1960: France agrees to independence of Dahomey, Niger, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central Africa and the Congo.
1977: US President Jimmy Carter says he favours development of neutron bomb because of its less destructive effect.
1983: Britain and China begin formal year-long negotiations in Beijing on the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty.
1990: Boris Yeltsin resigns from the Soviet Union's Communist Party during the 28th meeting of the Party Congress.
1991: The five permanent members of UN Security Council tell Iraq's ambassador his country must swiftly disclose extent of its nuclear programme or face serious consequences.
1998: Three young Catholic boys burn to death in a sectarian attack in Northern Ireland.
1999: The 52-member Organization of African Unity begins a conference in Algeria to address African problems ranging from a dlrs 220 billion debt to civil conflicts.
2000: The long-delayed International Space Station's service module is lifted off into orbit.
2002: UN Security Council approves a resolution that grants US peacekeepers serving in UN missions immunity from prosecution by the International Criminal Court, for at least a year.
2004: Israel's Prime Minister Ariel Sharon asks the Opposition Labour Party to join his coalition — an alliance that would strongly boost chances for an Israeli withdrawal from the Gaza Strip.
2005: Prince Albert II of Monaco accedes to the throne of a 700-year-old dynasty, a bachelor prince coming into his own as a retiring but modern ruler.
2006: Dozens of attacks against police and civilians leave five people dead in Sao Paulo. Authorities suspect they were ordered by one of Brazil's most notorious organised crime groups.
Hipolito Yrigoyen, first democratically elected president of Argentina (1852-1933); Elijah Wedgewood, British pottery maker (1730-1795); Henry David Thoreau, US author-naturalist (1817-1862); Pablo Neruda, Chilean poet and Nobel laureate (1904-1973); Van Cliburn, US pianist (1934-2013); Bill Cosby, US actor-comedian (1937- ); Cheryl Ladd, US actress (1951- )